Innovation Technology: Biomarkers play an important role in the diagnosis of disease. In fact, researchers found that light emitted by a single molecule can facilitate medical diagnostics from the optical setup.
Types of marker
Markers now in use are genes, proteins, hormones, lipids, and other classes of molecules. Biomarkers can be found in the blood, in cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and various types of tissues.
Molecular probes, such as antibodies or short nucleic-acid sequences are used for detection to bind to specific biomarkers.
In fact, when a probe binds to its target, there will be a chemical and physical reaction. The reaction will give rise to fluorescence signals. Such methods will give biomarkers to detect.
In addition, the biomarkers can amplify and enable medical screening, without sent the samples to a distant laboratory for analysis.
In fact, a new development which coupling DNA probes to tiny particles of gold or silver. Pairs of particles (‘dimers’) act as nano-antennas that amplify the fluorescence signals.
How does it work?
In fact, interactions between the nanoparticles and incoming light waves intensify the local electromagnetic fields. Hence, leads to a massive increase in the amplitude of the fluorescence.
Therefore, it can specifically detect bacteria that contain antibiotic resistance genes and even viruses.
In the future, there will be routine diagnostics on the smartphone. It can detect small fragments of DNA in blood serum, using a portable, smartphone. The procedure is based on a microscope that runs on a conventional USB power pack.
In fact, newer smartphones usually have pretty good cameras. Apart from that, all that’s needed is a laser and a lens, which are two readily available and cheap components.
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